Network governance approach combines market, hierarchy, and relational forms of coordination (Provan & Kenis 2008) by focusing on an interplay between actors within an organisational field, where their roles differ based on the external institutional conditions of the field that in turn affect the mode of governance. This approach draws from both sociology and organisational studies by using the network organisation as the unit of analysis and focusing on the structure of collective action (Powell et al. 2005, 1113) in order to explain network outcomes through different governance arrangements. It is possible to identify three forms of network governance based on goal-consensus: shared governance model, lead organisation -governance model and network administration model (Provan & Kenis 2008).
This paper applies the network governance approach and combines it with the power resource theory (e.g. Haipeter & Dörre 2011; Schmalz & Dörre 2013) that distinguishes four different but partly mutually dependent sources of power - economic-structural power, communicative power, organisational power and institutional power - Müller & Platzer (2017) to investigate European Trade Union Federations (ETUFs) governance structures and mechanisms for coordination of collective bargaining. The scope of this paper is on the manufacturing and public sector ETUFs and how different network governance forms have emerged in these settings. The primary empirical analysis is based on expert interviews with the actors in the field, representing both the ETUFs and their affiliates. These were complemented by official documents and previous research about the ETUFs and coordination of collective bargaining at the European level.